In the infraclass Paleoptera are the orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies) and Odonata (drag-onflies and damselflies), the living species of which represent the few remains of two formerly very extensive groups. Although both are placed in the Paleoptera, authorities disagree on whether the two orders are monophyletic or have separate origins (see Chapter 2, Section 3.2). Even if monophyletic, the Ephemeroptera and Odonata are two very different groups that must have diverged at a very early stage in the evolution of winged insects. They possess the following common features that unite them as Paleoptera: wings that cannot be folded back against the body when not in use, retention of the anterior median wing vein, netlike arrangement of wing veins (many crossveins), aquatic juvenile stage, and considerable change from juvenile to adult form. In members of both orders, wing development is external, though this feature is not, of course, restricted to Paleoptera.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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