Key to the Orders of Insecta

1. Wings developed 2

Wingless, or with vestigial wings, or with rudimentary wings not suitable for flight (wingless adults and immature stages) 31

2. Fore wings horny, leathery, or parchmentlike, at least at base; hind wings membranous (occasionally absent). Prothorax large and not fused with mesothorax (except in Strepsiptera) 3

Fore wings membranous 11

3. Fore wings containing veins, or at least hind wings not folded crossways when hidden under fore wings 4

Fore wings veinless, of uniform horny consistency; hind wings, when present, folded crossways as well as lengthwise when at rest and hidden beneath fore wings; mouthparts mandibulate l0

4. Mouthparts forming a jointed beak, fitted for piercing and sucking.

Bugs HEMIPTERA (Page 210)

Mouthparts with mandibles fitted for chewing and moving laterally 5

5. Hind wings not folded, similar to fore wings; thickened basal part of wings very short, separated from rest of wing by a preformed transverse suture; social species, living in colonies. Termites

ISOPTERA (Page 163)

Hind wings folding, fanlike, broader than fore wings 6

6. Usually rather large or moderately large species; antennae usually lengthened and threadlike; prothorax large and free from mesothorax;

cerci present; fore wings rarely minute, usually long 7

Very small active species; antennae short with few joints, at least one joint bearing a long lateral process; no cerci; fore wings minute; prothorax small. Rare, short-lived insects, parasites of other insects, usually wasps and bees Males of STREPSIPTERA* (Page 326)

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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