L Introduction

In this and the following chapter we shall deal with the endopterygote insects—those that have a distinct pupal instar in which the insect undergoes a drastic metamorphosis from the larval to the adult form. As noted in Chapter 2, Section 3.2, considerable difficulty has arisen in deciding whether the endopterygote orders have a common origin or are polyphyletic. The five orders considered in this chapter, Mecoptera, Diptera, Siphonaptera, Trichoptera, and Lepidoptera, show clear affinities that enable them to be grouped together as the panorpoid complex. Within the complex there are two sister lines of evolution: the Antliophora (first three orders) and the Amphiesmenoptera (Trichoptera and Lepidoptera). The remaining orders, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Strepsiptera, dealt with in Chapter 10, show few affinities with the panorpoid group.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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