Legal Control

chapter 24 Also known as regulatory control, legal control is based primarily on the old adage

"Prevention is better [in this instance, cheaper] than cure." Legal control is the enactment of legislation to prevent or control damage by insects (Rohwer, in Pimentel, 1991, Vol. 1). It includes, therefore, establishment of quarantine stations at major ports of entry into an area. Usually the stations are located at international borders, though in some instances domestic quarantines are necessary, for example, when certain parts of a country are widely separated from the rest (Hawaii and continental United States). At quarantine stations people and goods are inspected to prevent the accidental introduction of potential insect pests and plant and animal diseases. Prior to the introduction of quarantine legislation in the United States in the early 1900s (Plant Quarantine Act of 1912) a number of insect species had been accidentally introduced and become established as plant pests, for example, the cottony-cushion scale discussed in Section 2.3. Though quarantine has severely reduced the number of insect introductions, on average 11 exotic species are still added annually to the insect fauna of the United States (for a total of more than 800 for the period 19201980). About 35% of the important pests in the United States are introduced species and include pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus wog-lumi), Egyptian alfalfa weevil (Hypera brunneipennis), face fly (Musca autumnalis), cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus), and Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) (Sailer, 1983). As an adjunct to quarantine, many countries (or areas within countries) have legislation that requires international or interstate shipments of animals or plants, or their products, to be certified as disease- or insect-free by qualified personnel prior to shipment.

Also part of legal control is the setting up of surveillance systems for monitoring the insect population in a given area so that, should an outbreak occur, it can be dealt with before it has a chance to spread. Such surveillance is an important duty of state/provincial entomologists, in cooperation with local agriculture representatives and crop and livestock producers.

Another aspect of legal control, and one that has become increasingly important, is the licensing of insecticides and the establishment of (1) regulations regarding their use and (2) monitoring systems to assess their total impact on the environment. For example, in the United States the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for assessing the effectiveness of pesticides, as well as their possible hazardous effects on humans, wildlife, and other organisms, including bees, other pollinating species, and beneficial parasitoids. As noted earlier (Section 2.3), indiscriminate use of insecticides can result in greatly increased rather than decreased pest damage.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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