Life History and Habits

Generally, lice are considered to be highly host-specific being restricted to a single or a few closely related species of host, often occupying specific regions on the host's body. However, Marshall (1981) questioned whether taxonomic problems with this group may be obscuring the real situation, citing the example of Menacanthus eurysternus, which, on the basis of a recent revision, now counts 118 passerine species (in 20 families) and 5 woodpecker species among its hosts! By contrast, a given bird or mammal may play host to several species of lice, up to 15 being recorded on a South American tinamou. In contrast to fleas, lice spend their entire life on the host. They are highly sensitive to changes in temperature and humidity and survive for only a few days should the host die.

Most species of chewing lice live among the feathers of birds where they feed on fragments of feathers and skin. A few species, for example, the chicken body louse, Men-acanthus stramineus, feed on blood in addition to epidermal products and are able to pierce the skin or developing quills. The members of two small families of chewing lice are parasitic on mammals, though their general habits are like those of species found on birds. Some chewing lice, like Psocoptera, have the ability to take up moisture from the atmosphere via

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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