Life History and Habits

Most Psocoptera are found on vegetation or under bark, though some live among leaf litter, under stones, or in caves. A few species are associated with humans and may be encountered in houses or buildings in which food materials are stored. Though they may occur in vast numbers, they are seldom of economic importance. They are primarily phytophagous, feeding on algae, lichens, fungi, pollen, and decaying fragments of higher plants; occasionally they eat dead animal matter. Species associated with humans live on cereal products or, in the case of the common booklice, molds that develop on old books. Many species are gregarious, with individuals of all ages living together, often beneath a silken web produced from secretions of the modified labial glands. Most outdoor species are fully winged, though brachyptery and aptery are common under certain environmental conditions.

Males are unknown in some species, while in others facultative parthenogenesis may occur. In dioecious species a male typically courts a female prior to mating. Eggs, between 20 and 100 at a time, are laid singly or in groups, usually on vegetation or under bark, and they may be covered with silk, particles of debris, or fecal material. They have a thin chorion and lack micropyles and aeropyles. A few species are viviparous. Larvae usually pass through six instars prior to metamorphosis, but this figure is often reduced in polymorphic species. Typically the apterous morphs have one fewer instar than the fully winged forms. Where climatic conditions permit, Psocoptera may have several generations per year; 201

elsewhere, species are typically univoltine and may enter diapause to overcome adverse

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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