Life History and Habits

Though thrips are commonly encountered on growing vegetation, particularly among flowers, many species live on the ground among rotting vegetation where they feed on fungal mycelia or spores, a habit established by their psocopteroid ancestors. Others feed on pollen, leaf and flower tissue, and small arthropods, including their eggs (Heming, 1993). Feeding is achieved by a "punch and suck" mechanism (Heming, 1978) whereby the left mandible first pierces the tissue, the maxillary stylets (which form a tube) are then inserted, and the liquid food is drawn into the oral cavity by the action of the cibarial pump. Not surprisingly, many thrips are important pests because of the damage they cause, either directly by weakening plants and perhaps preventing fruit formation, or indirectly by acting as transmitters of disease-causing viruses. Partially offsetting their importance as pests is the benefit they

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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