Life History and Habits

Caddisflies, which are usually found close to fresh water, are mainly crepuscular or nocturnal, hiding by day among vegetation. They do not take solid food but are capable of sucking up nectar or water, which enables them to survive for several weeks. Coupling takes place during flight, but the insects come to rest for insemination. Eggs are laid in ribbons or masses either directly into the water or on some object immediately above it, the young larvae dropping into the water on hatching. Development may be rapid and in most species includes five larval instars. Most temperate region caddisflies have only one generation per year (univoltine), though some species are bivoltine or semivoltine. Diapause in the final

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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