Life History and Habits

The free-living earwigs are secretive, nocturnal creatures that hide in crevices, under stones, in logs, etc. They are fast runners and, although many have wings, they use them only rarely. Most species are omnivorous, and a few may damage young shoots and buds of plants. When animal food is available, however, it seems to be preferred.

* Species of Arixeniina and Hemimerina are usually decribed as ectoparasitic. However, their parasitic nature has not been established.

A short courtship precedes mating in which the partners face in opposite directions with their genitalia in contact. In warmer regions reproduction occurs year-round whereas in temperate climates it is probably restricted to the summer. Except for epizoic species, Dermaptera are oviparous, eggs being laid in batches in a short tunnel constructed by the female. Females care for the eggs and first two instars, but then become noticeably cannibalistic. There are four or five juvenile instars. In warmer regions young earwigs develop rapidly, and there are several generations per year; in temperate species larval development is arrested with the onset of cold weather, to be completed the following spring.

The epizoic Dermaptera are viviparous, eggs developing within the follicle of the ovariole (see Figure 20.15). Approximately six embryos develop at a time, apparently being nourished via a placentalike structure attached to the head of each embryo.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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