Life History and Habits

Adult Diptera are active, mostly free-living insects that are found in all major habitats. They are predominantly diurnal and usually associated with flowers or with decaying organic matter. With the exception of a few species that do not feed as adults, flies feed on liquids (rarely, also pollen), a habit that may reflect the use of honeydew from homopterans as their ancestral energy source (Downes and Dahlem, 1987). Most Diptera feed on nectar or the juices from decaying organic matter, but a few groups are adapted for feeding on the tissue fluids of other animals especially arthropods and vertebrates. This is achieved in some species by simply cutting the skin or squeezing prey with the labella and sucking up the exuded fluid. In the majority of body-fluid feeders, however, a fine proboscis is used to pierce the skin and penetrate directly to the fluid, usually blood. The habit is usually confined to females. It is through the bloodsucking habit and the subsequent importance of these insects as vectors of disease-causing microorganisms that the order is generally considered the most important of the entire class from the medical and veterinary point of view. Although parthenogenesis is known to occur in a few species, most Diptera reproduce bisexually. Copulation is preceded in some species by an elaborate courtship. Usually females actively search for, and lay eggs directly on, the larval food source. Members of a few groups are ovoviviparous or viviparous. Egg development is normally rapid and hatching occurs in a few days.

Larvae are usually found in moist locations such as soil, mud, decaying organic matter, and plant or animal tissues, though a few are truly aquatic. The majority are liquid feeders or

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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