Life History and Habits

Lepidoptera are found in a wide variety of habitats but are almost always associated with higher plants, especially angiosperms. Nielsen and Common (1991) suggested that the evolution of the proboscis was a major factor in the success of the order, enabling adults both to easily ingest water, hence avoid desiccation, and to obtain nectar often stored cryptically. Adults of the majority of extant species feed on nectar, the juice of overripe fruit, or other liquids. Some primitive forms feed on pollen and spores, and representatives of numerous ditrysian groups are non-feeders as adults. Some Lepidoptera are strong fliers, and some may migrate considerable distances (see Chapter 22, Section 5.2 for examples). The majority of species are cryptically colored, though many examples, especially among butterflies, of species with brilliantly colored wings are known. Balanced polymorphism (coexistence of two or more color forms), seasonal polymorphism, geographic polymorphism, or sexual dimorphism occurs in some species. In diurnal butterflies and moths visual stimuli attract males to females. However, females of nocturnal species secrete pheromones that attract males, sometimes from a considerable distance (see Chapter 13, Section 4.1). Likewise, pheromones produced by males may serve to initiate the mating response of a female. Lepidoptera almost always reproduce sexually and are oviparous, though facultative parthenogenesis and ovoviviparity occur in a few species. Egg-laying habits and the number of eggs laid are extremely varied. Some species simply drop their eggs in flight. Others are attracted to the larva's host plant by its odor and lay their eggs in a characteristic

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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