Life History and Habits

Adult stone flies are weak flyers and seldom found far from the banks of streams or edges of lakes where they rest, often well camouflaged, on vegetation, rocks, logs, etc. Nocturnal species usually hide in crevices or among vegetation during the day. Many stoneflies do not feed as adults. Others feed on lichens, acellular algae, pollen, bark, and rotten wood.

Prior to mating, many Arctoperlaria tap the substrate with the tip of the abdomen (drumming). Males initiate the drumming and virgin females respond. The drumming is species-specific and serves to bring the partners together (Stewart and Maketon, 1990). Mating usually occurs in daylight, on the ground, though a few species are nocturnal. Large numbers of eggs are laid, singly or, more often, in batches of 100 or more. In flying species females hover over the water and dip the abdomen beneath the surface. Brachypterous and apterous forms crawl to the water's edge, or below the water surface, in order to oviposit. Eggs of many species develop adhesive properties on contact with water. Embryonic development is usually direct, though eggs of some species may survive drought conditions in diapause. A few species are ovoviviparous. Larvae are typically found in streams or lakes whose bottom is covered with stones under which they can hide. Development is slow, frequently taking more than a year in the larger species. Many molts occur, 33 having been recorded over a period of 3 years for one species. Most stonefly larvae are phytophagous, feeding on lichens, algae, moss, and diatoms. Typically these are the species that also feed in the adult stage. Juveniles of other species are carnivorous, living on other insects. These species do not feed as adults. Like that of Odonata and mayflies, emergence of stoneflies is frequently highly synchronized.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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