Life History and Habits

Neuroptera may be found in a wide range of ecosystems, but in most cases adults are associated with vegetation, sometimes being strongly host-plant specific (a feature related to the prey preferences of the larvae). Adults of most species prey on other arthropods, though others are omnivorous and some Chrysopidae feed on honeydew. Sex attractants (in several families) or sounds (in some Chrysopidae) produced by tapping the abdomen on the substrate are used in courtship, Neuroptera reproducing only sexually. Eggs are laid singly or in small batches, either scattered or cemented to the substrate.

Larvae show a range of feeding habits. Most are free-living predators; larvae of Ithonidae are subterranean and feed on decaying plant material; many Mantispidae are heteromorphic (Chapter 21, Section 3.3.2), the triungulins seeking the egg sacs of spiders or larvae of social Hymenoptera on which to feed; and the aquatic larvae of Sisyridae feed on freshwater sponges. There are usually three larval instars, development in most species being completed in a season. Mature larvae spin a cocoon in which to pupate. Prior to eclosion, the pharate adult chews its way out of the cocoon using the pupal mandibles.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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