Hickin (1967), Mackay and Wiggins (1979), and Wiggins (1996) provide accounts of the biology of Trichoptera, emphasizing the larval stage. Ideas on the evolution and classification of the order are discussed by Morse (1997) and Kjer etal. (2002) (and authors cited therein). Keys for the identification of Trichoptera are given by Wiggins (1984, 1987, 1996) and Morse and Holzenthal (1984) [larvae of North American genera], Hickin (1967) [larvae of British species], and Neboiss (1991) [adults and larvae of Australian families].

Hickin, N. E., 1967, Caddis Larvae, Hutchinson, London.

Kjer, K. M., Blahnik, R. J., and Holzenthal, R. W., 2002, Phylogeny of caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera), Zool. Scripta 31:83-91.

Mackay, R. J., and Wiggins, G. B., 1979, Ecological diversity in Trichoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 24:185-208. Morse, J. C., 1997, Phylogeny of Trichoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42:427-450.

Morse, J. C., and Holzenthal, R. W., 1984, Trichoptera genera, in: An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North

America, 2nd ed. (R. W. Merritt and K. W. Cummings, eds.), Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, IA. Neboiss, A., 1991, Trichoptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Ross, H. H., 1956, Evolution and Classification of the Mountain Caddisflies, University of Illinois Press, Urbana. Ross, H. H., 1967, The evolution and past dispersal of the Trichoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 12:169-206. Weaver, J. S., 1984, Evolution and classification of the Trichoptera, part I: Groundplan of Trichoptera, in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Trichoptera (J. C. Morse, ed.), Junk, The Hague. Wiggins, G. B., 1984, Trichoptera, in: An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 2nd ed.

(R. W. Merritt and K. W. Cummins, eds.), Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, Iowa. Wiggins, G. B., 1987, Order Trichoptera, in: Immature Insects (P. W. Stehr, ed.), Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, Iowa. Wiggins, G. B., 1996, Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera), 2nd ed., University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Wiggins, G. B., and Wichard, W., 1989, Phylogeny of pupation in Trichoptera, with proposals on the origin and higher classification of the order, J. North Am. Benthol. Soc. 8:260-276.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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