Because of the central position that this order occupies in any discussion of the evolution of most endopterygote orders, interest in the Mecoptera has been out of proportion to the number of extant species. Information on the biology of Mecoptera is provided by Webb et al. (1975), Kaltenbach (1978), and Byers and Thornhill (1983). The evolution of the order and its relationship to the other panorpoid groups are discussed by Hennig (1981), Kristensen (1981), Willmann (1987), and Whiting (2002). Keys to families of Mecoptera in North America and Australia are provided by Arnett (2000) and Byers (1991), respectively. The British species are identifiable from Plant (1997).

Arnett, R. H. Jr., 2000, American Insects: A handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Byers, G. W., 1991, Mecoptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Byers, G. W., and Thornhill, R., 1983, Biology of the Mecoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 28:203-228. Hennig, W., 1981, Insect Phylogeny, Wiley, New York.

Hinton, H. E., 1958, The phylogeny of the panorpoid orders, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 3:181-206.

Kaltenbach, A., 1978, Mecoptera (Schnabelhafte, Schnabelfliegen), in: Handbuch der Zoologie, Vol. IV, Insecta

Lfg. 28:1-111, de Gruyter, Berlin. Kristensen, N. P., 1981, Phylogeny of insect orders, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 26:135-157.

Plant, C. W., 1997, A key to adults of British lacewings and their allies (Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera and Mecoptera), Field Stud. 9:179-269. Webb, D. W., Penny, N. D., and Marlin, J. C., 1975. The Mecoptera, or scorpionflies, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 31(7):251-316.

Whiting, M. F., 2002, Mecoptera is paraphyletic: Multiple genes and phylogeny of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera,

Zool. Scrip. 31:93-104. Willmann, R., 1987, The phylogenetic system of the Mecoptera, Syst. Entomol. 12:519-524.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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