Jones (1977) and Miller (1985) give general descriptions of the circulatory system. Pass (1998, 2000) reviews accessory pulsatile structures. The forms and functions of hemocytes are discussed by Arnold (1974), Crossley (1975), Jones (1975), Gupta (1985), and authors in the volume edited by Gupta (1979). Florkin and Jeuniaux (1974) and Mullins (1985) deal with hemolymph composition, and Gregoire (1974), Bohn (1986), and Theopold et al. (2002) with coagulation. Insect immunity is reviewed by Salt (1970), Gotz and Boman (1985), Dunn (1986, 1990), Boman and Hultmark (1987), Gillespie et al. (1997), Trenczek (1998), Vilmos and Kurucz (1998), Vass and Nappi (2001), Lavine and Strand (2002), and authors in Brey and Hultmark (1998). Vinson (1990), Beckage (1997), and Shelby and Webb (1999) examine how parasites deal with their host's immune system.

Arnold, J. W., 1974, The hemocytes of insects, in: The Physiology oflnsecta, 2nd ed., Vol. V (M. Rockstein, ed.),

Academic Press, New York. Beckage, N., 1997, The parasitic wasp's secret weapon, Sci. Amer. 277(November):82-87. Bohn, H., 1986, Hemolymph clotting in insects, in: Immunity in Invertebrates (M. Brehelin, ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Boman, H. G., and Hultmark, D., 1987, Cell-free immunity in insects, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 41:103-126. Brey, P. T., and Hultmark, D. (eds.), 1998, Molecular Mechanisms of Immune Responses in Insects, Chapman and Hall, London.

Coudron, T. A., 1991, Host-regulating factors associated with parasitic Hymenoptera, in: Naturally Occurring

Pest Bioregulators (P. A. Hedin, ed.), American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. Crossley, A. C., 1975, The cytophysiology of insect blood, Adv. Insect Physiol. 11:117-221. Dulcis, D., Davis, N. T., and Hildebrand, J. G., 2001, Neuronal control ofheartreversalin thehawkmothManduca sexta, J. Comp. Physiol. A 187:837-849. Dunn, P. E., 1986, Biochemical aspects of insect immunology, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 31:321-339. Dunn, P. E., 1990, Humoral immunity in insects, Bioscience 40:738-744.

Eslin, P., and Prévost, G., 2000, Racing against host's immunity defenses: A likely strategy for passive evasion of encapsulation in Asobara tabida parasitoids, J. Insect Physiol. 46:1161-1167. Fife, H. G.,Palli, S. R., and Locke. M., 1987, A function for pericardial cells in an insect, Insect Biochem. 17:829-840.

Florkin, M., and Jeuniaux, C., 1974, Hemolymph: Composition, in: The Physiology oflnsecta, 2nd ed., Vol. V

(M. Rockstein, ed.), Academic Press, New York. Gardiner, E. M. M., and Strand, M. R., 1999, Monoclonal antibodies bind distinct classes of hemocytes in the moth Pseudoplusia includens, J. Insect Physiol. 45:113-126. Gereben-Krenn, B.-A., and Pass, G., 2000, Circulatory organs of abdominal appendages in primitive insects

(Hexapoda: Archaeognatha, Zygentoma and Ephemeroptera), Acta Zool. 81:285-292. Gillespie, J. P., Kanost, M. R., and Trenczek, T., 1997, Biological mediators of insect immunity, Annu. Rev Entomol. 42:611-643.

Gotz, P., and Boman, H. G., 1985, Insect immunity, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and

Pharmacology, Vol. 3 (G.A. Kerkutand L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY. Gregoire, C., 1974, Hemolymph coagulation, in: The Physiology oflnsecta, 2nd ed., Vol. V (M. Rockstein, ed.).

Academic Press, New York. Gupta, A. P. (ed.), 1979, Insect Hemocytes, Cambridge University Press, London.

Gupta, A. P., 1985, Cellular elements in the hemolymph, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and

Pharmacology, Vol. 3 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY. Hantschk, A., 1991, Functional morphology of accessory circulatory organs in the legs of Hemiptera, Int. J. Insect

Morphol. Embryol. 20:259-273. Hertel, W., and Pass, G., 2002, An evolutionary treatment of the morphology and physiology of circulatory organs in insects, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 133:555-575. Hu, J., Zhu, X.-X., and Fu, W.-J., 2003, Passive evasion of encapsulation in Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a polyembryonic parasitoid of Ostriniafurnacalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyral-idae), J. Insect Physiol. 49:367-375. Jarosz, J., 1998, Active resistance of entomophagous rhabditid Heterorhabditis bacteriophora to insect immunity, Parasitology 117:201-208.

Jones, J. C., 1974, Factors affecting heart rates in insects, in: The Physiology of Insecta, 2nd ed., Vol. V (M. Rockstein, ed.), Academic Press, New York.

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