Good general accounts of the Hemiptera are given by Pesson (1951), Poisson (1951), and Dolling (1991). Miller (1971), Schuh and Slater (1995), and Schaefer (2000) discuss the biology of the Heteroptera, while authors in Schaefer and Panizzi (2000) detail economically important Heteroptera. Phylogeny and classification are discussed by Hennig (1981), Hamilton (1981), Popov (1981), Schuh (1986), Wootton and Betts (1986), Wheeler et al. (1993), Campbell et al. (1994), Sorensen et al. (1995), and von Dohlen and Moran (1995). Keys to the North American families of Hemiptera are given by Arnett (2000) and Slater and Baranowski (1978) [Heteroptera]. Genera of the aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera of North America can be identified from the key provided by Polhemus (1984). Keys and descriptions of British Hemiptera are given by Southwood and Leston (1959) [Heteroptera], Macan (1965) [aquatic Heteroptera], Le Quesne (1960, 1965, 1969) [Fulgoromorpha and Cicadomorpha], and Dolling (1991) [all families]. Carver et al. (1991) provide a key to the Australian families (and some subfamilies) of Hemiptera. Stonedahl and Dolling (1991) have prepared a lengthy bibliography on Heteroptera of the world, while Schaefer and Kosz-tarab et al. (in Kosztarab and Schaefer, 1990) provide bibliographies to the Heteroptera and homopterans, respectively, of the North American region.

Arnett, R. H., Jr., 2000, American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Campbell, B. C., Steffen-Campbell, J. D., and Gill, R. J., 1994, Evolutionary origin of whiteflies (Hemiptera: 233

Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences, Insect Mol. Biol. 3:73-88. Carver, M., Gross, G. F., and Woodward, T. E., 1991, Hemiptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. I THE HEMPTEROm (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria. ORDERS

Dolling, W. R., 1991, The Hemiptera, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hamilton, K. G. A., 1981, Morphology and evolution of the rhynchotan head (Insecta: Hemiptera, Homoptera),

Can. Entomol. 113:953-974. Hennig, W., 1981, Insect Phylogeny, Wiley, New York.

Kosztarab, M., and Schaefer, C. W. (eds.), 1990, Systematics of the North American Insects and Arachnids: Status and Needs, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. Le Quesne, W. J., 1960, 1965, 1969, Hemiptera-Fulgoromorpha and Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha, R. Entomol. Soc.

Handb. Ident. Br. Insects 2(3):1-68; 2(2):1-64, 65-148. Macan, T. T., 1965, A revised key to the British water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera), 2nd revised ed., Sci. Publ.

F.W. Biol. Assoc. 16:78 pp. Miller, N. C. E., 1971, The Biology of the Heteroptera, 2nd ed., Hill, London.

Novotny, V., and Wilson, M. R., 1997, Why are there no small species among xylem-sucking insects? Evol. Ecol. 11:419-437.

Pesson, P., 1951, Ordre des Homopteres, in: Traité de Zoologie (P.-P. Grasse, ed.), Vol. X, Masson, Paris. Poisson, R., 1951, Ordre des Heteropteres, in: Traite de Zoologie (P.-P. Grasse, ed.), Vol. X, Masson, Paris. Polhemus, J. T., 1984, Aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera, in: An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North

America, 2nd ed. (R. W. Merritt and K. W. Cummins, eds.), Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, IA. Popov, Y. A., 1981, Historical development and some questions on the general classification of Hemiptera, Rostria 33(Suppl.):85-99.

Schaefer, C. W., 2000, The Heteroptera, or true bugs, in: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (S. Levin, ed.), Academic Press, San Diego.

Schaefer, C. W., and Panizzi, A. R. (eds.), 2000, Heteroptera of Economic Importance, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Schuh, R. T., 1986, The influence of cladistics on heteropteran classification, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 31:67-93. Schuh, R. T., and Slater, J. A., 1995, True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Slater, J. A., and Baranowski, R. M., 1978, How to Know the True Bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera), William Brown, Dubuque, Iowa.

Sorensen, J. T., Campbell, B. C., Gill, R. J., and Steffen-Campbell, J. D., 1995, Non-monophyly of Auchen-orrhyncha ("Homoptera"), based upon 18S rDNA phylogeny: Eco-evolutionary and cladistic implications within pre-Heteropterodea Hemiptera (s.l.) and a proposal for monophyletic suborders, Pan-Pac. Entomol. 71:31-60.

Southwood, T. R. E., and Leston, D., 1959, Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles, Warne, London. Stonedahl, G. M., and Dolling, W. R., 1991, Heteroptera identification: A reference guide, with special emphasis on economic groups, J. Nat. Hist. 25:1027-1066. Swan, L. A., and Papp, C. S., 1972, The Common Insects of North America, Harper & Row, New York. Von Dohlen, C. D., and Moran, N. A., 1995, Molecular phylogeny of the Homoptera: A paraphyletic taxon, J. Mol. Evol. 41:211-223.

Wheeler, W. C., Schuh, R. T., and Bang, R., 1993, Cladistic relationships among higher groups of Heteroptera:

Congruence between morphological and molecular data sets, Entomol. Scand. 24:121-137. Wootton, R. J., and Betts, C. R., 1986, Homology and function in the wings of Heteroptera, Syst. Entomol. 11:389-400.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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