Literature

General accounts of the structure and biology of mayflies are provided by Needham etal. (1935), Edmunds etal. (1976), Brittain (1982), Edmunds (1984), Harker (1989), and Peters and Campbell (1991). More specialized treatments, especially of life histories, are given by Clifford (1982) and in the volumes edited by Flannagan and Marshall (1980) and Campbell (1990). For an appreciation of the continuing controversy regarding the phylogeny and classification of Ephemeroptera, see McCafferty and Edmunds (1979), Landa and Soldan (1985), McCafferty (1991), Bae and McCafferty (1995), and Kluge (1998). Edmunds et al. (1976) and Edmunds (1984) provide keys for the North American genera, Macan (1970), Kimmins (1972), and Harker (1989) for the British species, and Peters and Campbell (1991) for the Australian families.

Bae, Y. J., and McCafferty, W. P., 1995, Ephemeroptera tusks and their evolution, in: Current Directions in research on Ephemeroptera (L. D. Corkum and J. J. H. Ciborowski, eds.), Canadian Scholars' Press, Toronto. Berner, L., and Pescador, M. L., 1980, The mayfly family Baetiscidae (Ephemeroptera). Part I, in: Advances in

Ephemeroptera Biology (J. F. Flannagan and K. E. Marshall, eds.), Plenum Press, New York. Brittain, J. E., 1982, Biology of mayflies, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 27:119-147.

Campbell, I. C., (ed.), 1990, Mayflies and Stoneflies: Life Histories and Biology, Kluwer, Dordrecht. Clifford, H. F., 1982, Lifecycles of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), with special reference to voltinism, Quaest. Entomol. 18:15-90.

Edmunds, G. F., Jr., 1962, The principles applied in determining the hierarchic level of the higher categories of

Ephemeroptera, Syst. Zool. 11:22-31. Edmunds, G. F., Jr., 1972, Biogeography and evolution of Ephemeroptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 17:21-42. Edmunds, G. F., Jr., 1984, Ephemeroptera, in: An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 2nd ed.

(R. W. Merritt and K. W., Cummins, eds.), Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, IA. Edmunds, G. F., Jr., Jensen, S. L., and Berner, L., 1976, The Mayflies of North and Central America, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. Flannagan, J. F., and Marshall, K. E., (eds.), 1980, Advances in Ephemeroptera Biology, Plenum Press, New York.

Harker, J., 1989, Mayflies, Richmond Publishing Co., Slough, U.K.

Kimmins, D. E., 1972, A revised key to the adults of the British species of Ephemeroptera with notes on their ecology (second revised edition), Sci. Publ. F.W. Biol. Assoc. 15:75 pp.

Kluge, N. J., 1998, Phylogeny and higher classification of Ephemeroptera, Zoosystematica 7:255-269.

Landa, V., and Soldan, T., 1985, Phylogeny and higher classification of the order Ephemeroptera: A discussion from the comparative anatomical point of view, Studie Csl. Acad. Ved. 4:1-121.

Macan, T. T., 1970, A key to the nymphs of British species of Ephemeroptera (2nd revised ed.), Sci. Publ. F.W. Biol. Assoc. 20:63 pp.

Maiorana, V. C., 1979, Why do adult insects not moult? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 11:253-258.

McCafferty, W. P., 1991, Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Ephemeroptera (Insecta): A commentary on systematics, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 84:343-360.

McCafferty,W. P., and Edmunds, G. F., Jr., 1979, The higher classification of theEphemeroptera andits evolutionary basis, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 72:5-12.

Needham. J. G., Traver, J. R., and Hsu, Y.-C., 1935, The Biology of Mayflies, Comstock, New York.

Peters, W. L., and Campbell, I. C., 1991, Ephemeroptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. I (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Wang, T. W., and McCafferty, W. P., 1995, Relationships of the Arthropleidae, Heptageniidae, and Pseudironidae (Ephemeroptera: Heptagenioidea), Entomol News 106:251-256.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

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