(1996) [orthorrhaphans], and Nirmala et al. (2001) [Calyptratae] deal with the major subordinal groups. Keys for identification of Diptera are given by Oldroyd (1949) (and other authors in Volumes 9 and 10 of the same series) and Colyer and Hammond (1951) [British species]; Cole and Schlinger (1969) and McAlpine et al. (1981-1989) [North American genera]; and Colless and McAlpine (1991) [Australian families and some subfamilies].

Cole, F. R., and Schlinger, E. I., 1969, The Flies of Western North America, University of California Press, Berkeley. Colless, D. H., and McAlpine, D. K., 1991, Diptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 (CSIRO, ed.),

Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria. Colyer, C. N., and Hammond, C. O., 1951, Flies of the British Isles, Warne, London.

Downes, W. L., Jr., and Dahlem, G. A., 1987, Keys to the evolution of Diptera: Role of Homoptera, Environ. Entomol. 16:847-854.

Friedrich, M., and Tautz, D., 1997, Evolution and phylogeny of the Diptera: A molecular phylogenetic analysis using 28S rDNA sequences, Syst. Biol. 46:674-698. Griffiths, G. C. D., 1994, Relationships among the major subgroups of Brachycera (Diptera): A critical review,

Can. Entomol. 126:861-880. McAlpine, J. F., Peterson, B. V., Shewell, G. E., Teskey, H. J., Vockeroth, J. R., and Wood, D. M. (eds.), 1981-1989,

Manual ofNearctic Diptera, Vols. 1-3, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. Michelsen, V., 1996, Neodiptera: New insights into the adult morphology and higher level phylogeny of Diptera

(Insecta), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 117:71-102. Nagatomi, A., 1996, An essay on the phylogeny of the orthorrhaphous Brachycera (Diptera), Entomol. Mon. Mag. 132:95-148.

Nirmala, X., Hypsa, V., and Zurovec, M., 2001, Molecular phylogeny of calyptratae (Diptera: Brachycera): The evolution of 18S and 16S ribosomal rDNAs in higher dipterans and their use in phylogentic inference, Insect Mol. Biol. 10:475-485.

Oldroyd, H., 1949, Diptera: Introduction and key to families, R. Entomol. Soc. Handb. Ident. Br. Insects 9(1):49 pp. Oldroyd, H., 1964, The Natural History of Flies, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.

Oosterbroek, P., and Courtney, G., 1995, Phylogeny of the nematocerous families of Diptera (Insecta), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 115:267-311.

Riek, E. F., 1977, Four-winged Diptera from the Upper Permian of Australia, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 101:250-255. Rognes, K., 1997, The Calliphoridae (blowflies) (Diptera: Oestroidea) are not a monophyletic group, Cladistics 13:27-66.

Rohdendorf, B., 1974, The Historical Development of Diptera, University of Alberta Press, Edmonton. Willmann, R., 1989, Rediscovered: Permotipula patricia, the oldest known fly, Naturwissenschaften 76:375-377. Wootton, R. J., and Ennos, A. R., 1989, The implications of function on the origin and homologies of the dipterous wing, Syst. Entomol. 14:507-520. Yeates, D. K., and Wiegmann, B. M., 1999, Congruence and controversy: Towards a higher-level phylogeny of Diptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 44:397-428.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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