Literature

Krishna and Weesner (1969, 1970) have edited two volumes entitled "Biology of Termites" in which all aspects of termite biology are discussed. Grasse's (1982-1986) three-volume treatise also provides comprehensive coverage of the group. Other introductions to the biology of the order are given by Wilson (1971), Howse (1970), Harris (1971), and Pearce (1997). Termite phylogeny is discussed by McKittrick (1964), Krishna (1970),

FIGURE 7.11. Castes of the higher termite, Amitermes hastatus (Termitidae). (A) Worker; (B) soldier; (C) physogastric queen; (D) secondary queen; (E) tertiary queen; and (F) egg. All figures are to same scale. The worker is about 5 mm long. [From S. H. Skaife, 1954, The black-mound termite of the Cape, Amitermes atlanticus Fuller, Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr. 34:251-271. By permission of the Royal Society of South Africa.]

FIGURE 7.11. Castes of the higher termite, Amitermes hastatus (Termitidae). (A) Worker; (B) soldier; (C) physogastric queen; (D) secondary queen; (E) tertiary queen; and (F) egg. All figures are to same scale. The worker is about 5 mm long. [From S. H. Skaife, 1954, The black-mound termite of the Cape, Amitermes atlanticus Fuller, Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr. 34:251-271. By permission of the Royal Society of South Africa.]

Kambhampati etal. (1996), Kambhampati and Eggleton (2000), Donovan etal. (2000), and Eggleton (2001). Their economic importance is reviewed by Harris (1969, 1971), Hickin (1971), and Pearce (1997). North American termites are discussed by Weesner (1965) (also 1970, in "Biology of Termites," Vol. II) and may be identified in Helfer (1987). Watson and Gay (1991) discuss the order from the Australian perspective and provide access to the literature on termites from this region. Caste differentiation in termites is considered briefly in Chapter 21, Section 7, and extensively in the volume edited by Watson et al. (1985).

Carpenter, F. M., 1992, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part R. Arthropoda 4, Vols. 3 and 4 (Superclass Hexapoda), University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Donovan, S. E., Jones, D. T., Sands, W. A., and Eggleton, P., 2000, Morphological phylogenetics of termites (Isoptera), Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 70:467-513.

Eggleton, P., 2001, Termites and trees: A review of recent advances in termite phylogenetics, Insectes Soc. 48:187193.

Grasse, P. P., 1982-1986, Termitologia, Vols. I-III, Masson, Paris.

Harris, W. V., 1969, Termites as Pests of Crops and Trees, Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London.

Harris, W. V., 1971, Termites—Their Recognition and Control (2nd ed.), Longmans-Green, London.

Helfer, J. R., 1987, How to Know the Grasshoppers, Crickets, Cockroaches and Their Allies, Dover, New York.

Hickin, N. E., 1971, Termites: A World Problem, Hutchinson, London.

Howse, P. E., 1970, Termites, Hutchinson, London.

Kambhampati, S., and Eggleton, P., 2000, Phylogenetics and taxonomy, in: Termites: Evolution, Sociality, Symbioses, Ecology (T. Abe, D. E. Bignell, and M. Higashi, eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishing, Dordrecht.

Kambhampati, S., Kjer, K. M., and Thorne, B. L., 1996, Phylogenetic relationships among termite families based on DNA sequence of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, Insect Mol. Biol. 5:229-238.

Korb, J., 2003, Thermoregulation and ventilation of termite mounds, Naturwissenschaften 90:212-219.

Krishna, K., 1970, Taxonomy, phylogeny and distribution, in: Biology of Termites, Vol. II (K. Krishna and F. M. Weesner, eds.), Academic Press, New York.

Krishna, K., and Weesner, F. M. (eds.), 1969,1970, Biology of Termites, Vols. I and II, Academic Press, New York.

McKittrick, F. A., 1964, Evolutionary studies of cockroaches, Mem. Cornell Univ. Agri. Exp. Stn. 389:177 pp.

Pearce, M. J., 1997, Termites: Biology and Pest Management, CAB International, Wallingford, U.K..

Watson, J. A. L., and Gay, F. J., 1991, Isoptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. I (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Watson, J. A. L., Okot-Kotber, B. M., and Noirot, C. (eds.), 1985, Caste Differentiation in Social Insects, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Weesner, F. M., 1965, The Termites of the United States, National Pest Control Association, Elisabeth, NJ.

Wilson, E. O., 1971, The Insect Societies, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

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