There is an enormous volume ofliterature on Lepidoptera. This deals especially with the identification and distribution of butterflies and moths, a feature that may not be surprising when the popularity of this group with insect collectors is considered. The biology of Lep-idoptera is described by Common and Waterhouse (1981), Scott (1986), Douglas (1986), authors in Vane-Wright and Ackery (1989), Common (1990), Scoble (1992), Young (1997), and Leverton (2001). Discussions on the phylogeny of the order include those of Common (1975), Kristensen (1984, 1997), Nielsen (1989), Minet (1991), Heppner (1998), and Wiegmann et al. (2002). North American forms may be identified through the works of Dominick etal. (1971), Howe (1975), Scott (1986), and Arnett (2000). Mansell and Newman

(1968), Higgins and Riley (1970), Skinner (1984), and Thomas and Lewington (1991) deal with the British species. Common and Waterhouse (1981) [butterflies] and Common (1990) [moths] provide a guide to the Australian Lepidoptera.

Arnett, R. H., Jr., 2000, American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Common, I. F. B., 1975, Evolution and classification of the Lepidoptera, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 20:183-203.

Common, I. F. B., 1990, Moths of Australia, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Common, I. F. B., and Waterhouse, D. F., 1981, Butterflies of Australia (revised edition), Angus and Robertson, Sydney.

Douglas, M. M., 1986, The Lives of Butterflies, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Dominick, R. B., Edwards, C. R., Ferguson, D. C., Franclemont, J. G., Hodges, R. W., and Munroe, E. G. (eds.), 1971, The Moths of America North of Mexico, Classey, Hampton, U.K.

Heppner, J. B., 1998, Classification of Lepidoptera: Part 1. Introduction, Hol. Lepid. 5(Suppl. 1):1-148.

Higgins, L. G., and Riley, N. D., 1970, A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe, Collins, London.

Howe, W. H. (ed.), 1975, The Butterflies of North America, Doubleday, New York.

Kristensen, N. P., 1984, Studies on the morphology and systematics of primitive Lepidoptera (Insecta), Steenstrupia 10:141-191.

Kristensen, N. P., 1997, Early evolution of the Lepidoptera plus Trichoptera lineage: Phylogeny and the ecological scenario, Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Natur. 173:253-271.

Leverton, R., 2001, Enjoying Moths, Poyser, London.

Mansell, E., and Newman, H. L., 1968, The Complete British Butterflies in Colour, Rainbird, London.

Minet, J., 1991, Tentative reconstruction of the ditrysian phylogeny (Lepidoptera: Glossata), Entomol. Scand. 22:69-95.

Munroe, E. G., 1982, Lepidoptera, in: Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms (S.P. Parker, ed.), 2 vols., McGraw-Hill, New York.

Nielsen, E. S., 1989, Phylogeny of major lepidopteran groups, in: The Hierarchy of Life (B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, and H. Jornvall, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Nielsen, E. S., and Common, I. F. B., 1991, Lepidoptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Scoble, M. J., 1986, The structure and affinities of the Hedyloidea: A new concept of the butterflies, Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Entomol. 53:251-286.

Scoble, M. J., 1992, The Lepidoptera: Form, Function and Diversity, Oxford University Press, London.

Scott, J. A., 1986, The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Skinner, B., 1984, Colour Identification Guide to the Moths of the British Isles, Viking, Harmondsworth, U.K.

Thomas, J., and Lewington, R., 1991, The Butterflies of Britain and Ireland, Dorling Kindersley, London.

Vane-Wright, R. I., and Ackery, P. R. (eds.), 1989, The Biology of Butterflies, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York.

Whalley, P., 1986, A review of the current fossil evidence of Lepidoptera in the Mesozoic, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 28:253-271.

Wiegmann, B. M., Regier, J. C., and Mitter, C., 2002, Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages, Zool. Scripta 31:67-81.

Young, M., 1997, The Natural History of Moths, Poyser, London.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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