Information on the biology of Phthiraptera is given by Askew (1971), Marshall (1981), and Price and Graham (1997). Ferris (1951) and Kim (1985) deal specifically with the Anoplura (though the former's systematic treatment of the group is outdated), while Emerson and Price (1985) consider the Mallophaga on mammals. Clay (1970), Lyal (1985), Barker (1994), Cruickshank et al. (2001), and Barker et al. (2003) discuss the phylogeny of the order. Arnett (2000) includes keys to North American families of Phthiraptera, Calaby and Murray (1991) to the Australian families of Phthiraptera, and Kim and Ludwig (1978) to world families of Anoplura. Kim et al. (1986) provide a key for North American Anoplura.

Arnett, R. H., Jr., 2000, American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico, 2nd ed., CRC

Press, Boca Raton, FL. Askew, R. R., 1971, Parasitic Insects, American Elsevier, New York.

Barker, S. C., 1994, Phylogeny and classification, origins, and evolution ofhostassociations oflice, Int. J. Parasitol. 24:1285-1291.

Barker, S. C., Whiting, M., Johnson, K. P., and Murrell, A., 2003, Phylogeny of the lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

inferred from small subunit rRNA, Zool. Scrip. 32:407-414. Calaby, J. H., and Murray, M. D., 1991, Phthiraptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. I (CSIRO, ed.),

Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria. Clay, T., 1970, The Amblycera (Phthiraptera: Insecta), Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. 25:75-98. Cruickshank, R. H., Johnson, K. P., Smith, V. S., Adams, R. J., Clayton, D. H., and Page, R. D. M., 2001, Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of elongation factor 1 a identifies major groups of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera), Mol. Phylog. Evol. 19:202-215. Emerson, K. C., and Price, R. D., 1985, Evolution of Mallophaga on mammals, in: Coevolution of Parasitic

Arthropods and Mammals (K. C. Kim, ed.), Wiley, New York. Ferris, G. F., 1951, The sucking lice, Mem. Pac. Coast Entomol. Soc. 1:320 pp.

Kim, K. C., 1985, Evolution and host associations of Anoplura, in: Coevolution of Parasitic Arthropods and

Mammals (K. C. Kim, ed.), Wiley, New York. Kim, K. C., and Ludwig, H. W., 1978, The family classification of the Anoplura, Syst. Entomol. 3:249-284. Kim, K. C., and Ludwig, H. W., 1982, Parallel evolution, cladistics, and classification of parasitic Psocodea, Ann.

Entomol. Soc. Am. 75:537-548. Kim, K. C., Pratt, H. D., and Stojanovich, C. J., 1986, The Sucking Lice of North America: An Illustrated Manual for Identification, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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