Literature

Postembryonic development, especially its endocrine control, continues to be a strong area of research, and literature on the subject is abundant. The following list is therefore highly selective. Sehnal (1985) provides basic information on insect growth and life cycles, as well as references to important early papers. Highnam and Hill (1977) and Wigglesworth (1985) review the endocrine regulation of postembryonic development from an historical perspective, thereby providing a basis for chapters of a more specialized nature in Volume 8 of the treatise edited by Kerkut and Gilbert (1985). Nijhout (1994), Gilbert et al. (1996), and Heming (2003) provide recent summaries of the endocrinology of postembryonic development. Chippendale (1977) and Denlinger (1985) have reviewed the hormonal control of diapause. Aspects of polymorphism are considered in the volumes edited by Kennedy (1961), Luscher (1976), and Gupta (1991), and by Nijhout and Wheeler (1982), Retnakaran and Percy (1985), Hardie and Lees (1985), Pener (1991), Pener and Yerushalmi (1998), and Applebaum and Heifetz (1999). Imaginal discs are discussed in a series of papers edited by Ursprung and Nothiger (1972), as well as by Oberlander (1985) and Doctor and Fristrom (1985).

Applebaum, S. W., and Heifetz, Y., 1999, Density-dependent physiological phase in insects, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 651

44:317-341.

Breuer, M., Hoste, B., and De Loof, A., 2003, The endocrine control of phase transition: Some new aspects, POSTEMBRYONIC Physiol. Entomol. 28:3-10. DEVEWPMMT

Cantera, R., Thompson, K. S. J., Hallberg, E., Nassel, D. R., and Bacon, J. P., 1995, Migration of neurons between ganglia in the metamorphosing insect nervous system, Roux's Arch. Develop. Biol. 205:10-20.

Carter, D., and Locke, M., 1993, Why caterpillars do not grow short and fat, Int. J. Insect Morphol. Embryol. 22:81-102.

Chippendale. G. M., 1977, Hormonal regulation of larval diapause, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 22:121-138.

Clarke, K. U., and Langley, P. A., 1963, Studies on the initiation of growth and moulting in Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. and F. IV. Therelationship between the stomatogastric nervous system and neurosecretion, J. Insect Physiol. 9:423-430.

Dai, J.-D., and Gilbert, L. I., 1998, Juvenile hormone prevents the onset of programmed cell death in the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 109:155-165.

Denlinger, D. L., 1985, Hormonal control of diapause, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 8 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Doctor, J. S., and Fristrom, J. W., 1985, Macromolecular changes in imaginal discs during postembryonic development, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 2 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Farris, S. M., Robinson, G. E., Davis, R. L., and Fahrbach, S. E., 1999, Larval and pupal development of the mushroom bodies in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, J. Comp. Neurol. 414:97-113.

Gilbert, L. I., Rybczynski, R., and Tobe, S. S., 1996, Endocrine cascade in insect metamorphosis, in: Metamorphosis: Postembryonic Reprogramming of Gene Expression in Amphibian and Insect Cells, 3rd ed. (L. I. Gilbert, J. R. Tata, and B. G. Atkinson, eds.), Academic Press, San Diego.

Gupta, A. P. (ed.), 1991, Morphogenetic Hormones of Arthropods: Roles in Histogenesis, Organogenesis, and Morphogenesis, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.

Hall, B. L., 1999, Nuclear receptors and the hormonal regulation of Drosophila metamorphosis, Am. Zool. 39:714721.

Hardie, J., and Lees, A. D., 1985, Endocrine control of polymorphism and polyphenism, in: Comprehensive In sect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 8 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Heming, B. S., 2003, Insect Development and Evolution, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Highnam, K. C., and Hill, L., 1977, The Comparative Endocrinology of the Invertebrates, 2nd ed., Arnold, London.

Hill, L., and Goldsworthy, G. J., 1968, Growth, feeding activity, and the utilisation of reserves in larvae of Locusta, J. Insect Physiol. 14:1085-1098.

Horodyski, F. M., 1996, Neuroendocrine control of insect ecdysis by eclosion hormone, J. Insect Physiol. 42:917924.

Jones, G., and Sharp, P. A., 1997, Ultraspiracle: An invertebrate nuclear receptor for juvenile hormones, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:13499-13503.

Kennedy, J. S. (ed.), 1961, Insect polymorphism, Symp. R. Entomol. Soc. 1:115 pp.

Kent, K. S., Consoulas, C., Duncan, K., Johnston, R. M., Luedeman, R., and Levine, R. B., 1995, Remodelling of insect neuromuscular systems during insect metamorphosis, Am. Zool. 35:578-584.

Kerkut, G. A., and Gilbert, L. I. (eds.), 1985, Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology. Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Lees, A. D., 1966, The control of polymorphism in aphids, Adv. Insect Physiol. 3:207-277.

Lezzi, M., Bergman, T., Mouillet, J.-F., and Henrich, V. C., 1999, The ecdysone receptor puzzle, Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 41:99-106.

Liischer, M. (ed.), 1976, Phase and Caste Determination in Insects, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Myers, E. M., 2003, The circadian control of eclosion, Chronobiol. Int. 20:775-794.

Nijhout, H. F., 1994, Insect Hormones, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Nijhout, H. F., and Wheeler, D. E., 1982, Juvenile hormone and the physiological basis of insect polymorphisms, Quart. Rev. Biol. 57:109-133.

Oberlander, H., 1985, The imaginal discs, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 2 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Pener, M. P., 1991, Locust phase polymorphism and its endocrine relations, Adv. Insect Physiol. 23:1-79.

Pener, M. P., and Yerushalmi, Y., 1998, The physiology of locust phase polymorphism: An update, J. Insect Physiol. 44:365-377.

652 Retnakaran, A., and Percy, J., 1985, Fertilization and special modes of reproduction, in: Comprehensive Insect

Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. I (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, CHAPTER 21 Elmsford, NY.

Reynolds, S. E., 1986, Endocrine timing signals that direct ecdysial physiology and behavior, in: Insect Neuro-chemistry and Neurophysiology, 1986 (A. B. Borkovec and D. B. Gelman, eds.), Humana Press, Clifton, NJ.

Riddiford, L. M., 1985, Hormone action at the cellular level, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 8 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Riddiford, L. M., Hiruma, K., Lan, Q., and Zhou, B.-H., 1999, Regulation and role of nuclear receptors during larval molting and metamorphosis of Lepidoptera, Am. Zool. 39:736-746.

Russell, V., and Dunn, P. E., 1996, Antibacterial proteins in the midgut of Manduca sexta during metamorphosis, J. Insect Physiol. 42:65-71.

Sehnal, F., 1985, Growth and life cycles, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 2 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Tobe, S. S., and Stay, B., 1985, Structure and regulation of the corpus allatum, Adv. Insect Physiol. 18:305-432.

Truman, J. W., 1985, Hormonal control of ecdysis, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 8 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Truman, J. W., 1990, Neuroendocrine control of ecdysis, in: Molting and Metamorphosis (E. Ohnishi and H. Ishozaki, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Truman, J. W., 1992, The eclosion hormone system of insects, Prog. Brain Res. 92:361-374.

Truman, J. W., Taghert, P. H., Copenhaver, P. F., Tublitz, N. J., and Schwartz, L. M., 1981, Eclosion hormone may control all ecdyses in insects, Nature 291:70-71.

Ursprung, H., and Nothiger, R. (eds.), 1972, The Biology of Imaginal Disks, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Whitten, J., 1968, Metamorphic changes in insects, in: Metamorphosis (W. Etkin and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.

Wigglesworth, V. B., 1985, Historical perspectives, in: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry andPhar-macology, Vol. 7 (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.

Williams, D. W., and Shepherd, D., 2002, Persistent larval sensory neurons are required for the normal development of the adult sensory afferent projections in Drosophila, Development 129:617-624.

Yin, C.-M., and Gillott, C., 1975, Endocrine activity during caste differentiation in Zootermopsis angusticollis Hagen (Isoptera): A morphometric and autoradiographic study, Can. J. Zool. 53:1690-1700.

Zitnan, D., and Adams, M. E., 2000, Excitatory and inhibitory roles of central ganglia in initiation of the insect ecdysis behavioural sequence, J. Exp. Biol. 203:1329-1340.

Zitnan, D., Kingan, T. J., Hermesman, J. L., and Adams, M. E., 1996, Identification of ecdysis-triggering hormone from an epitracheal endocrine system, Science 271:88-91.

Zitnan, D., Zitnanova, I., Spalovska, I., Takac, P., Park, Y., and Adams, M. E., 2003, Conservation of ecdysis-triggering hormone signalling in insects, J. Exp. Biol. 206:1275-1289.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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