Male

Compared to that of females, sexual maturation in male insects has received much less attention and, consequently, is relatively poorly understood.

In species in which males after eclosion live for only a brief time, spermatogenesis is completed during the late larval and/or pupal stages. Presumably, also, in such short-lived species, when sperm is transferred to the female in a spermatophore, the accessory glands (which produce the spermatophore components) must become active in the juvenile stages. In many male insects, especially those that mate frequently, spermatogenesis continues at a low rate after eclosion. During sexual maturation, other events may also occur, such as synthesis and accumulation of accessory gland secretions for use in spermatophore or seminal fluid formation. Pheromone-producing glands may become functional, and the male may develop characteristic behavior patterns and coloration. All of these processes appear to be influenced by the endocrine system.

Involvement of the endocrine system in sperm production is now reasonably clear (Dumser, 1980). Several early workers observed that precocious adult males, obtained by removing the corpora allata from larvae, had testes that contained sperm capable of fertilizing eggs and concluded that JH inhibited differentiation of sperm. Conversely, other authors had noted that in diapausing larvae or pupae differentiation within the testis ceased and suggested that ecdysone promoted this process, an effect that has been confirmed in several species following the commercial availability of this hormone. If, however, the hormones regulate differentiation, then an adult insect, which was thought to lack ecdysone but has active corpora allata, would presumably present an unfavorable environment for spermatogenesis. Yet, as noted above, this process occurs after eclosion in some species. Dumser and Davey (1975 and earlier), working on Rhodnius, resolved this paradox by proposing that the hormones affect only the rate of spermatogonial mitosis and not differentiation

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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