Synonyms: none Common names: heelwalkers, gladiators

Medium-sized, wingless insects; hypognathous head with mandibulate mouthparts; well-developed compound eyes, filiform multisegmented antennae, ocelli absent; prothoracic pleuron large and fully exposed, legs uniform except fore femora thickened and both fore and mid femora with ventral rows of short spines, coxae elongate, tarsi five-segmented; female with well-developed ovipositor, cerci unsegmented (shorter in male than in female) and modified for clasping.

This is the most recently established insect order. Its formation became necessary when previously unidentified specimens, including preserved extant forms and fossils in Baltic amber, could not be assigned to any recognized order (Klass et al., 2002; Zompro et al., 2002; Adis et al., 2002). Extant species are known only from Africa south of the equator, though the fossils indicate that the order's earlier distribution included Europe.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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