Synonyms: Panorpatae, Panorpina, Panorpida Common name: scorpionflies

Slender medium-sized insects; head usually prolonged ventrally into a broad rostrum with long filiform antennae, well-developed compound eyes, and biting mouthparts; usually with two pairs of identical membranous wings with primitive venation and carried horizontally at rest; abdomen with short cerci and, in males, prominent genitalia.

Larvae usually eruciform with simple eyes, biting mouthparts, and thoracic legs; abdominal legs present or absent. Pupae decticous and exarate.

This is a small order containing about 500 known species, about 90% of which belong to two families, Panorpidae and Bittacidae. The order is particularly common in the Northern Hemisphere and includes about 75 North American and 4 British species. About 30 species occur in Australia.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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