Movement on or Through Water

Progression on or through water presents very different problems to movement on a solid substrate. For small organisms, such as insects that live on the water surface, surface tension is a hindrance in production of propulsive leg movements. For submerged insects, the liquid medium offers considerable resistance to movement, especially for actively swimming forms.

Insects that move slowly over the surface of the water, for example, Hydrometra (Hemiptera), or crawl along the bottom, for example, larval Odonata and Trichoptera, normally employ the hexapodal gait described above for terrestrial species. More rapidly moving species typically operate the legs in a rowing motion; that is, both legs of the segment move synchronously. Some species do not use legs but have evolved special mechanisms to facilitate rapid locomotion.

3.2.1. Surface Running

The ability to move rapidly over the surface of water has been developed by most Gerroidea (Hemiptera), whose common names include pondskaters and waterstriders. To stay on the surface, that is, to avoid becoming waterlogged, these insects have developed various waterproofing features, especially hydrophobic (waxy) secretions, on the distal parts

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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