Muscles And Locomotion

compared with dry. In contrast, wireworms (Elateridae) are inactive in air saturated with 465

moisture yet become active at lower humidity. Insects that normally secrete themselves in cracks or crevices, for example, earwigs and bedbugs, exhibit stereokinesis, an inhibition of movement that occurs when a sufficient number of mechanoreceptors on the body surface are stimulated.

A taxis is orientation in response to a stimulus, the location of which can be perceived by an insect. To locate the stimulus, an insect uses either paired sense organs (compound eyes, antennae, and tympanal organs) or moves one sense organ from side to side, and compares the strength of the stimulus received by each organ or by the single organ in each position. In its simplest form, an insect's response is to move toward or away from the stimulus. For example, the bloodsucking insects Rhodnius and Cimex possess the ability to orient to a heat source (positive thermotaxis) that enables them to locate a host. Many insects exhibit chemotaxis in locating food, a mate, or a host. Locusts are attracted to a light source (positive phototaxis). A more complex form of phototaxis is where an insect orients itself and moves with its body at a constant angle to the light source. As the insect moves, therefore, it receives a constant visual stimulus. Such orientation is called menotaxis. The stimulus may be a simple point source of light, for example, the sun which forms the basis of the light-compass reaction of bees and other insects that navigate. Alternately, the stimulus may be a more complex visual pattern. Marching behavior in groups of juvenile locusts (hoppers) is based on menotaxis, involving both a simple and a complex visual stimulus. The simple stimulus, the sun, gives rise to a light-compass reaction so that the individual marches in a fixed direction. The more complex stimulus is the visual pattern created by the presence of adjacent hoppers. Thus, as one hopper moves, neighboring hoppers will also be stimulated to move in order to keep constant the visual pattern seen by each eye. This ensures that the group marches as a whole; that is, menotaxis is the basis of their gregarious behavior.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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