Muscles And Locomotion

FIGURE 14.16. Haltere of Lucilia (Diptera). The orientation of the various groups of campaniform sensilla is indicated by double-ended arrows. [After J. W. S. Pringle, 1948, The gyroscopic mechanism of the halteres of Diptera, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 233:347-384. By permission of The Royal Society, London, and the author.]

the production of this energy both physiologically and biochemically. The tracheal system (Chapter 16) is able to provide the large volumes of oxygen required—often more than 20 times the amount used by a resting insect. The circulatory system (Chapter 17) may store large amounts of substrate precursor molecules and have transport proteins, especially for lipids, that take energy-rich compounds to the flight muscles. And, as outlined in Section 2.1, the flight muscles are superbly equipped to deal with these materials, with many large mitochondria (occupying up to 45% of flight-muscle volume) closely apposed to the contractile elements.

Some broad ecological and behavioral correlations with the type of fuel used in flight have been suggested. Thus, insects with short-duration flights, high wing-beat frequencies, and asynchronous flight muscle, for example Diptera and Hymenoptera, use carbohydrate. Locusts, many Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, and Odonata, on the other hand, have lower-frequency wing beats, neurogenic flight muscles, and may fly for extended periods, including long-distance migrations. These insects tend to use only lipids or initially use carbohydrate, then switch to using mainly lipids within a few minutes. However, there are compounding factors (e.g., frequency of feeding and flying) that affect flight metabolism. Further, some insects use neither carbohydrate nor lipid as their flight substrate. For example, Glossina morsitans, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and Melolontha melolontha use proline stored in high concentration in the hemolymph (Wheeler, 1989; Gade and Auerswald, 1998). As hemolymph proline becomes depleted, more is formed from lipids stored in the fat body or from hemolymph alanine. Wheeler (1989) suggested that its advantages

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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