Muscles And Locomotion

FIGURE 14.7. Phases in the passage of a peristaltic wave along the body of a caterpillar. [After G. M. Hughes, 1965, Locomotion: Terrestrial, in: The Physiology ofInsecta, 1st ed., Vol. II (M. Rockstein, ed.). By permission of Academic Press, Inc., and the author.]

the posterior end of the body. A peristaltic wave of contraction then moves anteriorly, lengthening and narrowing the body. The anterior end is attached to the substrate while the posterior is released and pulled forward as the anterior longitudinal muscles contract. In many burrowing forms peristalsis proceeds in the opposite direction to movement, so that the narrowing and elongation begins at the anterior end and runs posteriorly. As the anterior end relaxes behind the peristlatic wave, it expands. This expansion serves both to anchor the anterior end and to enlarge the diameter of the burrow (Hughes and Mill, 1974; Berrigan and Pepin, 1995).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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