Orders

Superfamily Sphaeroceroidea

Included in the Sphaeroceroidea (Heleomyzoidea) are the cosmopolitan families SPHAEROCERIDAE (700 species, including about 120 that are brachypterous or apterous) and HELEOMYZIDAE (400 species), together with several small groups. Sphaerocerids are associated with dung, decaying plant material, fungi (occasionally becoming pests on mushroom farms), seaweed, and carrion. Larval heleomyzids, too, are found in decaying organic matter and fungi, as well as in the nests of birds and mammals, and bat caves.

Superfamily Ephydroidea

Also called Drosophiloidea, this group includes about 2600 species, almost all of which fall into two large families. The EPHYDRIDAE (shore flies, brine flies) (Figure 9.16A), with more than 1000 described species, is well known because of the remarkable variety of habitats that its members occupy. They are typically found near water, both fresh and

FIGURE 9.16. Ephydroidea and Carnoidea. (A) An ephydrid with raptorial forelegs, Ochthera mantis (Ephy-dridae); and (B) the European frit fly, Oscinella frit (Chloropidae). [A, from F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press. B, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.]

FIGURE 9.16. Ephydroidea and Carnoidea. (A) An ephydrid with raptorial forelegs, Ochthera mantis (Ephy-dridae); and (B) the European frit fly, Oscinella frit (Chloropidae). [A, from F. R. Cole and E. I. Schlinger, 1969, The Flies of Western North America. By permission of the University of California Press. B, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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