suborder its name. Adults are of varied size and color. The eyes of males are large but not contiguous.

Suborder Furcatergalia

The Furcatergalia is the largest mayfly suborder. It name derives from the forked nature of the larval gills. The group includes five superfamilies: Leptophlebioidea, Behningioidea, Ephemeroidea (burrowing mayflies), Ephemerelloidea, and Caenoidea. The last two super-families collectively form the pannote mayflies, so-called because of the fused fore wing pads of the larvae.

Superfamily Leptophlebioidea

The LEPTOPHLEBIIDAE (about 380 described species, representing perhaps only about 10% of the total) is another large and probably paraphyletic group of worldwide distribution but especially common in the Southern Hemisphere. A good deal of parallel evolution of habits and morphology appears to have taken place between the Leptophlebiidae in the Australasian region and the Baetidae and Heptageniidae in the holarctic region. Thus, many leptophlebiid species are found as larvae in still or slow-moving water, and, in some instances, the adults closely resemble baetids. Larvae of other species are found clinging to rocks in fast-flowing waters and resemble heptageniid larvae.

Superfamily Behningioidea

All members of this very small group (seven extant species) are included in the family BEHNINGIIDAE (tuskless burrowing mayflies). The family is holarctic, with representatives in eastern Europe, Siberia, and Thailand, plus one species in the eastern U.S.A. The larvae are predaceous and burrow in sand in rivers.

FIGURE 6.6. Hexagenia limbata (Ephemeridae). (A) Adult; and (B) larva. [From B. D. Burks, 1953. The mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois. Bull. III. Nat. Hist. Surv. 26(1). By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

Superfamily Ephemeroidea

Most species in this largely Northern Hemisphere group, the tusked mayflies, belong to the EPHEMERIDAE (about 100 species) (Figure 6.6) or the POLYMITARCYIDAE (about 70 species). Ephemerid larvae have the tibiae of the forelegs modified for burrowing in the mud or sand oflarge lakes, rivers, and streams. The mandibles (tusks) are long and used for lifting the roof of the burrow. Most of the body and the appendages are covered with fine hairs. These become coated with silt, and the insect is thereby well camouflaged. Adults are generally moderately sized to large insects. Their wings are hyaline, though they may be spotted in some species. In Polymitarcyidae the middle legs and hind legs of males, and all legs of females, are vestigial. Like ephemerids, polymitarcyid larvae have digging forelegs and tusks and are burrowers, usually in mud or fine sand, though some tunnel into clay on the banks oflarge rivers.

Superfamily Ephemerelloidea

With about 100 described species, the EPHEMERELLIDAE is widespread in the hol-arctic region, with genera also in South America, Asia, and southern Africa. Australia, by contrast, has but one species. Ephemerellid larvae are found in a wide variety of still- and moving-water habitats, especially cold, fast-flowing streams. Adults are small- to medium-sized mayflies. Members of the related family TRICORYTHIDAE (about 120 species), a predominantly Asian, African, and North American group, are generally similar in their habits to ephemerellids.

Superfamily Caenoidea

The CAENIDAE (Figure 6.7), with some 80 described species, is a widely distributed family of generally small mayflies. The hairy larvae sprawl on the surface of fine sediments in still or slow-moving water. The second pair of gills is enlarged and strengthened, forming a

FIGURE 6.7. Larva of Caenis simulans (Caenidae). [From B. D. Burks, 1953. The mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois, Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 26(1). By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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