For different insects there exists a wide range of materials that are potential permeants of the integument, and of factors that affect their rate of permeation. Sometimes specific regions of the integument are constructed to facilitate entry or exit of certain materials; more often the integument is structured to prevent entry or loss. At this time we shall consider only the permeability of the cuticle to water and insecticides, of which the latter may now be considered a normal hazard for most insects. The passage of gases through the integument is considered in Chapter 15.

Water. Water may be either lost or gained through the integument. In terrestrial insects, which exist in humidities that are almost always less than saturation, the problem is to prevent loss through evaporation. In freshwater forms the problem is to prevent entry related to osmosis.

In many terrestrial insects the rate of evaporative water loss is probably less than 1% per hour of the total water content of the body (i.e., of the order of 1-3 mg/cm2 per hr for most species). Most of this loss occurs via the respiratory system, despite the evolution of mechanical and physiological features to reduce such loss (Chapter 15). Water loss through the integument (sensu stricto) is extremely slight, mainly because of the highly impermeable epicuticle and in particular the wax components. Early experiments demonstrated that permeability of the integument is relatively independent of temperature up to a certain point (the transition temperature), above which it increases markedly. As a result of his studies on both artificial and natural systems, Beament (1961) concluded that the initial impermeability is related to the highly ordered wax monolayer whose molecules sit on the tanned cuticulin envelope at an angle of about 25° to the perpendicular axis, with their polar ends facing inward and nonpolar ends outward. In this arrangement the molecules are closely packed and held tightly together by van der Waals forces. As temperature increases, the molecules gain kinetic energy, and eventually the bonds between them rupture. Spaces appear and water loss increases significantly. The nature of the wax and its transition temperature can be correlated with the normal niche of the insect. Insects from humid environments or that have access to moisture in their diet, for example, aphids, caterpillars, and bloodsucking insects, have "soft" waxes, with low transition temperatures. Forms from dry environments or stages with water-conservation problems, for example, eggs and pupae, are covered with "hard" wax, whose transition temperature is high (in most species above the thermal death point of the insect).

More recent studies have questioned the validity of Beament's ordered monolayer model.Evidence against it includes theobservationthathydrocarbons(non-polarmolecules) are the dominant component of wax, physicochemical analyses that indicate that the lipids have no preferred orientation, and mathematical calculations that show the abrupt permeability changes at the so-called transition point to be artifactual (Blomquist and Dillwith, 1985).

Some insects that are normally found in extremely dry habitats and may go for long periods without access to free water, for example, Tenebrio molitor and prepupae of fleas,

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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