Pests of Cultivated Plants

Damage to crops and other cultivated plants by insects is enormous; in the United States alone losses in potential production are estimated at 13% and have a value of about US$30 billion annually, despite the application of more than 100,000 tonnes of insecticide. Remarkably, about three quarters of the insecticide used is applied to 5% of the total agricultural land, especially that growing row crops such as cotton, corn, and soybean (Pimentel et al., in Pimentel, 1991, Vol. 1). Damage is caused either directly by insects as they feed (by chewing or sucking) or oviposit, or by viral, bacterial, or fungal diseases, for which insects serve as vectors. Especially important as "direct damagers" of plants are Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera (see the chapters that deal with these orders for specific examples of such pests). Several hundred diseases of plants are known to be transmitted by insects (for examples see Table 24.2) including about 300 that are caused by viruses (Eastop, 1977). Especially important in disease transmission are Hemiptera,

TABLE 24.2. Examples of Plant Diseases Transmitted by Insects0

Disease

Important hosts

Vectors

Distribution

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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