Pests of Domesticated Animals

A range of insect parasites may cause economically important levels of damage to domestic animals. The majority of these parasites are external and include bloodsucking flies (e.g., mosquitoes, horse flies, deer flies, black flies, and stable flies), biting and sucking lice, and fleas. Other parasites are internal for part of their life history, for example, bot, warble, and screwworm flies, which as larvae live in the gut (horse bot), under the skin (warble and screwworm of cattle), or in head sinuses (sheep bot). Other examples are given in the chapters that deal with the orders of insects. In addition to insects, other arthropods are also important livestock pests, especially various mites and ticks. Kunz et al. (in Pimentel, 1991, Vol. 1) estimated that direct losses caused by insect and tick pests of livestock were almost $3 billion each year in the United States. Insecticide treatment is routine for some pests, and in the absence of treatment, losses caused by these pests (e.g., cattle grubs, Hypoderma bovis and H. lineatum) might be as much as ten times greater. Indirect losses such as poor breeding performance by bulls, reduced conception rate by cows, and labor costs of treating livestock are not included in the above estimate.

Generally the effect of such parasites is to cause a reduction in the health of the infected animal. In turn, this results in aloss of quality and/or quantity of meat, wool, hide, milk, etc., produced. When severely infected by parasites, an animal may eventually die. In addition to their own direct effect on the host, some parasites are vectors oflivestock diseases, examples of which are included in Table 24.1.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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