Photoreception

Almost all insects are able to detect light energy by means of specialized photosensory structures: compound eyes, ocelli, or stemmata. In the few species that lack these structures, for example, some cave-dwelling forms, there is commonly sensitivity to light over the general body surface.

The use that insects make oflight varies from a situation in which it serves as a general stimulant of activity, through one of simple orientation (positive or negative phototropism), to a state where it enables an insect to carry out complex navigation, and/or to perceive form, patterns, and colors. At all levels of complexity, however, the basic mechanism of stimulation is very likely the same; that is, the solar energy striking the photosensory cell is absorbed by pigment in the cell. The pigment undergoes a slight conformational change that causes a momentary increase in permeability of the receptor cell membrane and, thereby, the initiation of nerve impulses that travel to the optic lobes and central nervous system.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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