Phthiraptera

Synonyms: Pseudorhynchota, Mallophaga Common names: lice, sucking lice (in part),

(in part), Lipoptera (in part), chewing lice or bird lice

Siphunculata (in part), (in part)

Anoplura (in part)

Minute to small, apterous, dorsoventrally flattened ectoparasites of birds or mammals; head prognathous or hypognathous, compound eyes reduced or absent, ocelli absent, antennae 3-to 5-segmented, mouthparts of chewing or piercing-sucking type with palps of maxillae and labium reduced or absent; prothorax free or fused with pterothorax, legs with unsegmented or 2-segmented tarsi, more or less modified for clinging to hair or feathers, one, two, or no tarsal claws; abdomen 7- to 10-segmented, cerci absent.

The order, which has a worldwide distribution, includes about 3100 described species. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) are exclusively parasites of placental mammals, while the remainder are chewing lice ("Mallophaga") comprising the suborders Amblycera,

204 Ischnocera, and Rhynchophthirina. About 85% of the species of chewing lice are parasites of birds. Many Phthiraptera are important pests, in their role as disease vectors, of domesticated CHAPTER 8 • , J , animals and humans.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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