Phylogeny and Classification

Fossil remains of phasmids, though not plentiful, extend back to the Upper Permian. Surprisingly, perhaps, these are remarkably similar to some of the less specialized modern forms. Phasmids assignable to the two extant families first appear in the Early Oligocene (Rasnitsyn and Quicke, 2002). Sharov's (1968) extensive study of these fossils suggested that phasmid affinities are closest to the Orthoptera (suborder Caelifera). In contrast, Kamp's (1973) comparative morphological analysis of living species led him to conclude that the Phasmida are most closely related to the Dermaptera and Grylloblattodea, and that perhaps the three form a natural group. Gunther (1953), principally on the basis of a single feature on the tibial segment, divided the order into two families, PHYLLIIDAE (leaf insects and related sticklike forms) (650 species) and PHASMATIDAE (the remaining stick insects) (1850 species), though the two groups show much parallelism. More recent, though not necessarily more satisfactory classifications (Key, 1991) have tended to divide the group up

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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