Phylogeny and Classification

Fossil Diplura are known from the Upper Carboniferous of Illinois (Testajapyx thomasi) though at this stage the appendages were still fully segmented, eyes were present, and the entognathous condition was not fully developed; that is, the lateral margins of the head were not fused with the labium to form a pouch around the mandibles and maxillae. Extant Diplura were arranged by Paclt (1957) in three families [CAMPODEIDAE, PROJAPY-GIDAE (= ANAJAPYGIDAE), and JAPYGIDAE]. However, more recent classifications [e.g., that of Conde and Pages (1991)] tend to raise the subfamilies within these groups to the rank of family. In campodeids (Figure 5.3A), which may reach 4 mm at maturity, the cerci are multiannulate and usually as long as the abdomen. In contrast, the projapygids (Figure 5.3B) are minute arthropods with relatively short cerci (less than half the length of the abdomen and having fewer than 10 subdivisions). The cerci of japygids (in the sense of Paclt, 1957) take the form of strongly sclerotized, undivided forceps (Figure 5.3C).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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