Phylogeny and Classification

Fossil Megaloptera are known from as early as the Upper Permian and probably had a common ancestry with the Raphidioptera and/or Neuroptera in the Upper Carboniferous. The cladistic analysis of Aspock et al. (2001) indicates that the Megaloptera and Neuroptera are sister groups. Corydalidae, including larval forms, are known from the Lower Cretaceous, and representatives of modern genera occur in Eocene Baltic amber. Extant species are placed in a single superfamily Sialoidea, which includes two families, SIALIDAE (alder-flies) (Figure 10.1A,B) and CORYDALIDAE (dobsonflies) (Figure 10.1C,D). Probably less than 100 species of Sialidae occur, of which perhaps about one half have been described. The family is cosmopolitan. Corydalidae, with about 150 described species, are not found in Europe or North Africa.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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