Phylogeny and Classification

Presently, this order comprises 11 extant species arranged in three families (AUS-TROPHASMATIDAE [eight species], MANTOPHASMATIDAE [two species], and TAN-ZANIOPHASMATIDAE [one species], plus Praedatophasma maraisi and Tyrannophasma gladiator (extant) and Raptophasma kerneggeri from Baltic amber (Eocene), which are of uncertain placement due to lack of data (Klass et al., 2003a,b). As the above description of their structure indicates, they share unusual features with certain orders: Grylloblattodea, Plecoptera, Phasmatodea, and Dictyoptera. Klass et al. (2002) speculated that the closest relatives of the mantophasmatids might be the Grylloblattodea and/or Phasmatodea. A subsequent limited molecular analysis suggested that mantids (Dictyoptera; suborder Mantodea) form the sister group (Klass et al., 2003a). However, it should be noted that this study did not include representation from the Grylloblattodea. Molecular studies in progress indicate that the grylloblattids are the closest relatives of heelwalkers (Terry and Whiting, unpublished).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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