Phylogeny and Classification

The relationship of the Grylloblattodea to other orthopteroid groups has been the subject of considerable discussion. Recent grylloblattids possess a combination of primitive "blattoid" and "orthopteroid" features, together with specialized features of their own. The multisegmented cerci, five-segmented tarsi, large coxae, and asymmetric male genitalia suggest a relationship with cockroaches, whereas the well-developed ovipositor and the structure of the tentorium are more orthopteroid in nature. Thus, some earlier authors suggested that living grylloblattids were specialized survivors of a primitive protorthopteran stock from which the Dictyoptera and Orthoptera evolved. However, new discoveries, plus the recognition that many so-called protorthopterans were, in fact, grylloblattids, have resulted in a significant change in thinking with respect to the phylogenetic position and importance of this order. Thus, although extant species are few and quite uniform, in the

Permian the order included the most abundant and diverse insects. The comparative studies of Giles (1963) and Kamp (1973) suggested that the closest relatives of grylloblattids are Dermaptera and that the two groups may have had a common ancestry. Storozhenko (1997, 2002) and Vrsansky et al. (2001) believe that it was from grylloblattids that Dermaptera, Plecoptera, and Embioptera evolved.

The living Grylloblattodea are placed in a single family, GRYLLOBLATTIDAE, containing four genera: Grylloblatta (11 western North American species); Grylloblattina (1 species from Siberia); Galloisiana (11 species from Japan, Korea, and China); and Gryl-loblattella (3 species from Siberia, China, and Korea).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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