Phylogeny and Classification

The relationship of the Zoraptera with other insect orders is unclear, in part due to the poor fossil record. Until recently, only two fossil species were described, from Miocene amber deposits in the Dominican Republic (Poinar, 1988; Engel and Grimaldi, 2000). However, Engel and Grimaldi (2002) have described four additional species from Burmese amber

FIGURE 7.25. Zoraptera. (A) Wingless morph of male Zorotypus hubbardi, a species found in the United States; and (B) winged female of Z. nascimbenei, a Cretaceous species from Burmese amber. [A, from C. N. Smithers, 1991, Zoraptera, in: The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., Vol. I (CSIRO, ed.), Melbourne University Press. By permission of the Division of Entomology, CSIRO. B, from M. S. Engel and D. A. Grimaldi, 2002, The first Mesozoic Zoraptera (Insecta), Amer. Mus. Novit. 3362:20 pp.]

(Cretaceous). Consequently, comparative anatomy of living species has provided the main basis for claims of phylogenetic relationships. The general form of the head, mandibu-late mouthparts, structure of the thorax, presence of cerci, and nature of the male genitalia are orthopteroid or blattoid. The reduced wing venation, small number of Malpighian tubules, and concentrated abdominal ganglia, however, have been considered indicative of a hemipteroid relationship by some authors. Thus, at one time or another, Zoraptera have been designated as the sister group of Embioptera, Isoptera, Dictyoptera, Dermaptera, Para-neoptera (hemipteroid orders), even Holometabola (endopterygotes) (references in Engel and Grimaldi, 2002). Engel and Grimaldi (2000) suggested that the most strongly supported hypothesis is a sister-group relationship between Zoraptera and Embioptera.

Kukalova-Peck and Peck (1993) and Chao and Chen (2000) have argued that the extant New World species are quite distinct from those in the Old World and should be placed in seven new genera (and probably a new family). Engel and Grimaldi (2000, 2002) did not subscribe to this view and included all but one of the described species (fossil and extant) in the genus Zorotypus, family ZOROTYPIDAE.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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