Phylogeny and Classification

According to Giles (1963), the nearest relatives of the Dermaptera are the Grylloblattodea, the two orders having evolved from some common protorthopteran stock. This conclusion is supported by Kamp's (1973) numerical analysis of selected orthopteroids. However, other authors, notably Storozhenko (1997, 2002) claim that the Dermaptera have evolved from early Grylloblattodea. The earliest fossil Dermaptera, known from the Upper Jurassic, are assignable to the extinct suborder Archidermaptera and the Forficulina which includes most extant species. Usually, modern Dermaptera have been arranged in three suborders: Forficulina (free-living forms), Arixeniina, and Hemimerina (rare epizoic forms). The Arixeniina comprises five species in two genera, Arixenia (Figure 7.14B) and Xeniaria, that live in close association with Southeast Asian cave bats. The Hemimerina

FIGURE 7.14. Dermaptera. (A) Female European earwig Forficula auricularia; (B) Arixenia sp.; and (C) Hemimerus sp. [B, C, from P.-P. Grassé (ed.), 1949, Traité de Zoologie, Vol. IX. By permission of Masson, Paris.]

178 includes about 10 species of Hemimerus (Figure 7.14C), all of which are epizoic on African chapter 7 giant rats of the genus Cricetomys. Some authors consider that the features by which Ar-

ixenia (Popham, 1965) and Hemimerus (Klass, 2001) differ from free-living forms are simply adaptations to their epizoic life and therefore include these in the Forficulina. The classification used here is that of Vickery and Kevan (1983, 1986).

Suborder Forficulina

Superfamily Pygidicranoidea

Most of the 200 or so species in this group are placed in the family PYGIDICRANIDAE, though this maybe aparaphyletic arrangement. It includes the most primitive living earwigs, with representatives in Asia, Australia, South Africa, Madagascar, and South America.

Superfamily Karschielloidea

All members of this small group belong to the family KARSCHIELLIDAE. These large carnivorous Dermaptera are restricted to South Africa where they feed on ants.

Superfamily Spongiphoroidea (= Labioidea)

Included in this superfamily are the SPONGIPHORIDAE (= LABIIDAE) (240 species) and ANISOLABIDIDAE (= CARCINOPHORIDAE) (115 species). Members of both familiespt are principally found in warmer regions of the world, though in each group there are a few representatives in temperate regions and some species with a worldwide distribution (often as a result of human activity).

Superfamily Forficuloidea

Three families are included in the Forficuloidea, the CHELISOCHIDAE, LABIDURI-DAE, and FORFICULIDAE. About 55 species of che1isochids are recognized, mostly from Southeast Asia, with a few from Africa and Australia. The family Labiduridae (60 species) has a worldwide distribution and includes some large earwigs such as the cosmopolitan Labidura riparia found under debris along riverbanks and beaches. Some 250 species of the worldwide family Forficulidae have been described, including the European earwig, Forficula auricularia (Figure 7.14A), which as a result of commerce is now cosmopolitan in cooler parts of the world. The species became established in North America in the early 1900s. Contrary to normal opinion, F. auricularia is generally a beneficial insect, feeding preferentially on other, potentially pestiferous, arthropods. However, when its numbers increase so that this kind of food becomes scarce, it will attack flowers, fruit, and vegetables causing severe damage.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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