Plecoptera

Synonyms: Perlaria, Perlida Common name: stoneflies

Moderate-sized to fairly large soft-bodied insects; head with long setaceous antennae, weak mandibulate mouthparts, well-developed compound eyes and two or three ocelli; thorax almost always with two pairs of membranous wings (sometimes reduced), hind pair in most species with a large anal lobe, venation frequently specialized, legs identical and with a three-segmented tarsus; abdomen of most species terminated by long multiannulate cerci, females lacking a true ovipositor, males without gonostyles and phallic organs on abdominal segment 9.

Larvae aquatic, generally resembling adults except for presence of a varied number of tracheal gills.

More than 2000 species of this very ancient order have been described, including just over 600 from North America, about 30 from Britain, and 200 from Australia. Though the order has representatives on all continents except Antarctica, most families have a rather restricted distribution.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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