FIGURE 19.10. Oothecae. (A) Egg pod of Acrida (Orthoptera); (B) ootheca of Hierodula (Mantodea); (C) transverse section through ootheca of Hierodula; (D) ootheca of Blattella (Blattodea); and (E) transverse section through crista of Blattella ootheca. [A, after R. F. Chapman and I. A. D. Robertson, 1958, The egg pods of some tropical African grasshoppers, J. Entomol. Soc. South. Afr. 21:85-112.By permission of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. B, C, after Kershaw, J. C., 1910, The formation of the ootheca of a Chinese mantis, Hierodula saussurii, Psyche 17:136-141. E, after V. B. Wigglesworth, 1965, The Principles of Insect Physiology, 6th ed., Methuen and Co. By permission of the author.]

mantids is also a hard but vacuolated sheath (Figure 19.10B,C), and, in these examples, there is clearly no hindrance to gas exchange. In contrast, the ootheca of cockroaches is a hardened shell (Figure 19.10D) formed by tanning of the proteins secreted from the accessory glands and for the most part is virtually impermeable to gases. Accordingly, the ootheca contains an air-filled cavity along the crista that connects with the exterior via small pores (Figure 19.10E). Oothecae are restricted to the lower insect orders, and Davey (1965) speculated that their absence in higher insects might represent an economy measure that permits members of these groups to produce more eggs.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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