FIGURE 19.3. Reproductive system of female Lepidoptera-Ditrysia. [After A. D. Imms, 1957, A General Textbook of Entomology, 9th ed. (revised by O. W. Richards and R. G. Davies), Methuen and Co.]

and 4.1). These features may indicate that the sperm stored in the spermatheca require an ionic milieu different from that of the surrounding hemolymph.

Various accessory glands (also called collateral or colleterial glands) may be present and usually open into the bursa. However, in Acrididae (Orthoptera) the glands, known as pseu-docolleterial glands, are anterior extensions of the lateral oviducts (Figure 19.1A). Normally, there is one pair of glands, which secrete materials that form a protective coating around the eggs or stick the eggs to the substrate during oviposition. Less commonly the glands produce antibacterial substances that coat the eggs, toxic egg protectants, and oviposition-stimulating or oviposition-deterring pheromones (Gillott, 2002). In some species the glands may be structurally distinct bi- or multipaired structures, each pair presumed to have discrete functions. In Hymenoptera, the glands are single, not paired, and produce the venom used in the sting, secrete trail- or oviposition site-marking pheromones, or lubricate the ovipositor valves (Figure 19.1D).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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