Seasonal Influences of Photoperiod

Photoperiod affects a variety of long-term physiological processes in insects and, in doing so, allows a species to (1) exploit suitable environmental conditions and (2) survive periods when climatic conditions are adverse. Some of the ways in which species are enabled to exploitasuitableenvironment include beinginanappropriate developmental stageassoon as the suitable conditions appear, and growing or reproducing at the maximum rate while conditions last. Obviously, to survive adverse conditions, members of a species must already be in an appropriate physiological state when the conditions develop. In other words, the physiological or behavioral changes are induced by cues that are not in themselves adverse. Thus, among the processes known to be affected by photoperiod are the nature (qualitative expression) and rate of development, reproductive ability and capacity, synchronized adult emergence, induction of diapause, and possibly cold-hardiness. Several of these processes are closely related and are therefore affected simultaneously. Other environmental factors, especially temperature, may modify the effects of photoperiod.

3.2.1. Nature and Rate of Development

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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