Siphonaptera

Synonyms: Aphaniptera, Suctoria Common name: fleas

Small, wingless, laterally compressed, jumping ectoparasites of birds and mammals; head sessile without typical compound eyes, antennae short and lying in grooves, mouthparts of piercing and sucking type; coxae large, tarsi 5-segmented; abdomen 10-segmented and bearing unsegmented cerci.

Larvae eruciform and apodous. Pupae adecticous and exarate, enclosed in a cocoon.

More than 2000 species of fleas have been described, about 90% of which are parasitic on placental mammals, especially rodents. More than 250 species occur in North America, about 90 in Australia, and 60 in Britain.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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