Sp

ringer

A C.I.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.

ISBN-10 1-4020-3182-3 (PB) ISBN-13 978-1-4020-3182-3 (PB) ISBN-10 1-4020-3184-X (HB) ISBN-13 978-1-4020-3184-7 (HB) ISBN-10 1-4020-3183-1 (e-book) ISBN-13 978-1-4020-3183-0 (e-book)

Published by Springer,

P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. www.springeronline.com

Printed on acid-free paper

Cover image:

Bee flies and a blister beetle feeding on pollen of Echinacea (courtesy of Jason Wolfe and Tyler Wist)

All Rights Reserved © 2005 Springer

No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work.

Printed in the Netherlands.

Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

I. Evolution and Diversity

1 1. Introduction 3

2. Arthropod Diversity 3

rthropod 2.1. Onychophora, Tardigrada, andPentastoma 4

Evolution 2.3. The Chelicerate Arthropods 6

2.4. The Mandibulate Arthropods 8

3. Evolutionary Relationships of Arthropods 14

3.1. The Problem 14

3.2. Theories of Arthropod Evolution 15

3.2.1. Mono-and Diphyletic Theories 15

3.2.2. The Polyphyletic Theory 17

3.3. The Uniramians 20

3.3.1. Myriapoda-Hexapoda Relationships 20

4. Summary 21

5. Literature 22

2 1. Introduction 25

2. Primitive Wingless Insects 25

Insect 3. Evolution of Winged Insects 27

. 3.1. Origin and Evolution of Wings 27

Diversity 3.2. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Pterygota 33

3.3. Origin and Functions of the Pupa 44

4. The Success of Insects 47

4.1. The Adaptability of Insects 47

4.2. The Importance of Environmental Changes 49

vi 5. Summary 53

6. Literature 53

Contents

3 1. Introduction 57

2. General Body Plan 57

External 3. TheHead 60

3.1. General Structure 60

Structure 3.2. Head Appendages 64

3.2.1. Antennae 64

3.2.2. Mouthparts 64

4. The Neck and Thorax 72

4.2. Structure of the Thorax 73

4.3. Thoracic Appendages 75

5. The Abdomen 83

5.1. General Structure 83

5.2. Abdominal Appendages 84

5.2.1. External Genitalia 85

5.2.2. Other Appendages 88

6. Literature 89

4 1. Introduction 91

2. Naming and Describing Insects 92

Systematics 3. Classification 94

3.1. The History of Insect Classification 96

and 4. Identification 102

Taxonomy 4.1. Key to the Orders of Insects 103

5. Literature 111

5 1. Introduction 113

2. Collembola 114

Apterygote 3. Protura 118

Hexapods 5. Microcoryphia 122

6. Zygentoma 123

6 1. Introduction 127

2. Ephemeroptera 127

Paleoptera 3. Odonata 136

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment